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Somalia


The Federal Republic of Somalia, shortly know as just "Somalia" is the country located to the east of Africa, the penninsula, called "the Horn of Africa". The country shares the borders with Ethiopia, Djibouti and Kenya from west, northwest and southwest respectively. By the data of 2014, the population of the country has reached more than 10 million people. With the total area of over 600 square kilometers, the country has a relatively low population density. Somalia takes the 44th place among the worls countries by the total area and 86th place by the general population number.

The total population of Somalia has grown from around 3 million to more than 10 million people in thirty years. The native somalians make up to 85%. They have lived in the nothern part of Somalia for generations and centuries. The number of native inhabitants, living in Somalia used to be bigger by around 5% prior to the Civil War of 1990s. At this time many educated somalians have joined the diaspora in Europe and Asia.

Somalia operates in two official languages. Somali, one of the state languages, is at the same time the most popular and spoken in the country, given the fact that it is the language of the native ethnic qroup. Somali has three basic dialects, divided by the area, where the dialect is most used: Benadit, Maay and Nothern. Nothern dialect is considered the standard one and is usually well understood all over the country. The second official language in Somalia is Arabic. As the country historically was and remains till now closely connected with a lot of the countries of Arabic world, a significant part of native population speaks Arabic as a second language. Though English is not one of the official languages and is not used in the country as widely as at the time when Somalia was under the protectorate of Britain, it is widely taught at schools.

In the course of history Somalia had to survive thorugh many political processes and changes. The people of the country had to live through their own civil war in 1990s and that cannot not come easy for any country in the world. The war caused the process of decentralization, as a result of which a few autonomic areas appeared in the north part of the country. All the political processes led to the acception in 2012 of a Provisional Constituion, which proclaimes Somalia a federation. The same month Somalia got its first permanent government, called the Federal Government of Somalia.

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